The Little Worm Farm

Working with Earth to make the best natural organic fertiliser from compost worms.

What's new

  • Free Worm Farming Guide

    30+ pages of worm farming guidance all for free.

  • Free eBook by Larry Shier: 10 Biggest Mistakes New Worm Farmer Make

    Larry Shier has started a crazy eBook production process containing very valuable content. Checkout his latest release.

  • My airlift vortex AACT brewer

    <p>I recently created a large BSF (Black Soldier Fly) larvae compost bin so my previous design using an inverted pontoon pile cap has been converted into a more suitable use: an airlift vortext Actively Aerated Compost Tea Brewer. The shape of the container makes it ideal for this type of tea brewer.</p> <p><a href=";utm_content=aact">My previous compost tea brewer that uses an air diffuser</a> was working great, however, due to the number of small pvc sections (over 20, not counting the air pipe) and fittings, it was a bit tedious to clean, even though not too bad. For this new design, there is only 9 sections (not counting the air p...</p>

  • DIY plastic drum BSFL compost bin

    <p>After the success of my previous <a href="">BSFL compost bins</a> I decided that for this coming season I will build a larger system that will allow me to use more larvae and compost more food waste. So I use the materials I collected over the months and started the construction of Pantagruel. Those who have followed me must now know about Gargantua, my DIY CFT. In the french Literature, Gargantua is a character from a novel from the 16th century by François Rabelais, Pantagruel is Gargantua's son, they both have a huge appetite.</p> <p>About two years ago, I have collected three 220L (55 gallons) plastic drums, tw...</p>

  • Using horse manure to feed the worms

    <p>For a home scale worm farm, the use of animal manure is totally unnecessary. With one to three worm farms of the style of the Worm Cafe for example, my family of three generates more food than the worms can eat. However, because I have a <a href="">CFT worm farm</a> and multiple other larger systems I need more food source for all the worms. I sometimes receive kitchen scraps from friends but there are times where I need more. That's where the horse manure come into play. I have access to free fresh horse manure, just 13 minutes from home.</p> <p>Today, with a friend, we went collecting about maybe 15 large bags of...</p>

Worm Farming and Other Composting Methods

It seems that whenever we human make a step forward we also make two steps backwards. What I mean is a lot of time when with our intelligence we come up with solutions and products that is meant to enhance or speed-up what Nature does perfectly for millenia, we are actually destroying the structure of that natural process and in the long run it bounces back at us.

This is what happened with modern agriculture. We are tilling our soil, applying chemical fertilisers and pesticides in order to speed-up and increase yield, but now we realise (obviously not all of us...) that these practices are actually damaging our soil and the impact reaches far out. What we've been doing so far is just killing all the life forms that were present in our soil transforming it to just bare dirt leaching chemicals to groundwater.

With modern life, rare are the urban people who have space or time to compost their scraps and grow their own food. Landfills are piling up rotting material which releases methane, an even more dangerous greenhouse gas than carbon dioxide.

This is where worm farming (vermicomposting and vermiculture) might help us change the shape of our future. Compost worms and their friends are Nature's workers doing the nasty jobs of converting decaying matter into nutrient rich material we call vermicompost or Black Gold. When done properly, composting with worms will turn your kitchen waste into the best natural fertiliser on Earth, no methane off-gassing, no smell all organic. Applying vermicompost/vermicast to your garden instead of chemical fertiliser, will not only provide your plants with nutrient but more importantly with a wide array of soil microbiology which will help keeping your soil healthy which in turn keeps your plants healthy, boosting their immune system and hence reducing the need for pesticides.

If every household have at least one worm bin, even if that will not be enough to process all the waste generated, it will globally reduce the amount of waste going to landfills by a lot. And did you know that some compost worms are also excellent bait for fishing? So if vermicompost isn't useful for you, maybe you can grow the worms for your hobby.

Worm Farming is not the only way, alternative composting solutions include:

  • Traditional composting
  • Bokashi
  • BSFL (Black Soldier Fly Larvae) composting

Both methods have their own pros and cons and can actually complement one another rather well. I personally use traditional composting for hot composting horse manure and garden waste, worm farming for my veggie and fruit scraps and BSFL compsoting for meat, dairy products and other scraps usually avoided in the other methods. Nowadays my green (garden) bin is almost always empty, the red (waste) does not stink and only contains stained material that cannot be recycled in the yellow (recyclable) bin.

The Team

Eisenia Fetida

The Red Wigglers

Eisenia Hortensis

The European Nightcrawlers

Perionyx Excavatus

The Blue Worms

Hermetia Illucens

The Black Soldier Fly Larvae

The Little Worm Farmer

My name is Quoc-Huy NGUYEN DINH (Huy for short) aka The Little Worm Farmer. The Little Worm Farm is a little worm farming (vermicomposting & vermiculture) operation based in Wyoming (Gosford area) on the Central Coast in NSW, Australia. I provide worm farming products (compost worms, worm bin, worm farm conditioners etc...) and services such as kitchen scraps collection, troubleshooting or coaching mainly around the Gosford area.

My main objective is to help people get on with their composting projects, I would like to see more people diverting their compostable waste from landfills. To reach this goal, I'm trying to provide correct and accurate information because there are a lot of wrong technique being taught out there on the forums, Youtube etc... and many people have failed because of them. So if you encounter any issue, whether you have your worms from me or not, don't hesitate to reach out to me for help.

My favorite compost worm: the European Nightcrawlers (ENC). I have both ENC, Red Wigglers and Blue Worms but also being a fisherman I naturally have a preference for the European Nightcrawlers for being great fishing bait. ENC area also easy (but slow) worms to breed. However, for the beginner, I recommend starting with Red Wigglers as they will be less frustrating if you want to do worm farming to harvest vermicompost for the garden.

I recently added Black Soldier Fly Larvae to the team. Those larvae are amazing composters and can consume types of food scraps usually avoided in a worm composting system such as meat of dairy product. This is really closing the loop for me as we are now diverting almost all of our kitchen waste.

My favorite worm bin: CFT (Continuous Flow Through). I made myself one out of pallet woo, it is a single compartment worm bin which dimensions are L 3.3 x W 2 x H 2 ft. A large bin is way easier to maintain and a CFT has double the aeration due to having two surface areas (top and bottom) in contact with air, it thus can sustain double the worm population density. My second favorite is also a homemade worm bin designed as a horizontal migration bin, it is also single compartment but with a closed bottom, its dimensions are L 4 x W 1 x H 1 ft, being less deep but still large, it draws in enough oxygen to sustain the worms.

My recommended beginner worm bin: the Worm Inn, Worm Inn Mega or the Worm Swag if you want the best ratio composting capability over space required. The popular stacking tray systems are decent systems if you only need to make a little bit of your own natural fertiliser, however they won't be able to process as much food scraps. You can also even start worm farming with a simple Rubbermaid tub or a broccoli styrofoam box as worm bin.

Red Wigglers

Description of this worm

Their scientific name is Eisenia Fetida. They are the most popular compost worms and for a reason: they are most docile worms to grow and can survive in a wider range of bedding temperatures than other worms.

Composting performance

Red Wigglers are relatively fast breeders and eaters. They are the ideal earthworms for home composting. However, due to their size and the smelly liquid they release when stressed, they are not ideal fishing bait. Some fish don't mind it though.

worm Stats

  • max temperatures: 38°F to 95°F
  • ideal temperatures: 70°F to 80°F
  • 3.8 cocoons per adult per week
  • 83.2% hatching success rate
  • 3.3 hatchlings per cocoon
  • 44.6 young per adult per month
  • 32-73 days to cocoon hatch
  • 53-76 days to sexual maturity
  • 85-149 days from egg to maturity

Identification clues

  • average adult size: 2-4 inches
  • presence of stripes along the body
  • bulged saddle-shaped clitellum starting at segment 25/26 covering from 6 to 8 segments
  • tail tip of yellow color
  • when stressed they release a coelomic fluid, a yellow smelly liquid hence their name
  • Physically identical to Eisenia Andrei and currently there no known visual clue to differentiate them.

European Nightcrawlers

Description of this worm

Their scientific name is Eisenia Hortensis (formely Dendrobena Veneta). They are gaining in popularity amongst vermiculturists due to the fact that they are bigger (longer and fatter) than their smaller cousins the Red Wigglers. They are thus good fishing bait but, however, have a slower breeding cycle but can survive a similar range of temperatures than the Red Wigglers.

Composting performance

The European Nightcrawler (ENC) is bigger than Red Wigglers making it a great choice for fishermen. The Kookaburra Worm Farms (one of the largest worm farms in the world) reckon they are the best fish bait compared to other species such as African Nightcrawlers (Eudrillus Eugenia) or Cod Worms (Amynthas Gracilis). Although they feed slower than the Red Wigglers, the ENC worms remains excellent composting worms.

worm Stats

  • max temperatures: 38°F to 90°F
  • ideal temperatures: 60°F to 70°F
  • 1.6 cocoons per adult per week
  • 81.2% hatching success rate
  • 1.1 hatchlings per cocoon
  • 6.1 young per adult per month
  • 40-128 days to cocoon hatch
  • 56-86 days to sexual maturity
  • 97-214 days from egg to maturity

Identification clues

Very often confused with the Red Wigglers with good reasons, ENC worms are very close cousins with the Red Wigglers, when young or small, it is nearly impossible to tell them apart. But when given space and food, E. Hortensis can grow much longer and fatter than E. Fetida.

  • average adult size: 5-7 inches
  • presence of stripes along the body
  • bulged saddle-shaped clitellum starting at segment 25/26 covering from 6 to 8 segments
  • tail tip of yellow color
  • tail tip is rounder than E. Fetida's

Blue Indians

Description of this

Their scientific name is Perionyx Excavatus. Blue worms are the most controversial compost worms, some people hate them, some people love them, most people discover them by accident either having their bin invaded by native Blue Worms or having received an order of Red Wigglers with Blue Worms mixed in. They are definitely not the worms for beginners.

Composting performance

They are loved for their fast breeding cycle and their voracious apetite which makes them excellent composters.
On the other hand, the beginner will have hard time dealing with this worm because of it's temperamental nature, they tend to do a mass exodus if they don't like something: rainstorm, bedding, disturbance...
However, if you learn to contain them, you might be able to convert hate into love.


  • max temperatures: 45°F to 90°F
  • ideal temperatures: 70°F to 80°F
  • 19.5 cocoons per adult per week
  • 90.7% hatching success rate
  • 1.1 hatchlings per cocoon
  • 83.2 young per adult per month!
  • 16-21 days to cocoon hatch
  • 29-55 days to sexual maturity
  • 45-76 days from egg to maturity

Identification clues

  • average length: 3-4 inches
  • dark head
  • no stripes on the thin elongated body
  • flush clitellum starting at segment 13
  • the body color can vary with their diet
  • Physically identical to Perionyx Spenceralia (Australia)

Black Soldier Fly Larvae

Description of this larvae

Their scientific name is Hermetia Illucens. Black Soldier Flies (BSF) are not like the common house flies, they look like black wasps, they don't sting and don't eat. Not being attracted to human or their food, they don't annoyingly hover around us. Female BSF deposit their eggs on a dry surface adjascent to decaying food. Their larvae (BSFL) start white and gradually get darker and end up almost black.

Composting performance

Black Soldier Fly Larvae can consume a lot of food and pretty fast. Each larvae can consume up to 1 gram of food per day. Young they are white/cream, that's when they are most active and voracious eater. However, at their pre-pupal stage, they get dark and stop eating for the rest of their lives, that's when they start escaping (self-harvesting) the environment where they have grown up to bury themselves in the soil around getting ready to transform to adult flies.

larvae Stats

  • max temperatures: 0°F to 116°F
  • at less than 50F and over 113F they become inactive
  • ideal temperatures for composting: 95F
  • ideal temperatures for mating: 81F to 99F
  • 5000 larvae can eat up to 11 lbs per day

Identification clues

  • average length: 1⁄8 to 3⁄4 inches
  • cream color when at visible size, not as round as common fly maggots
  • pre-pupae are dark and pupae are black
  • have a kind of "beak" that is actually their head